The 9 th International Conference for Basic Sciences
27 – 29 March, 2017, Cairo, Egypt.
The Conference will be held in Al-Azhar Conference Center (aacc), Tayaran st., Nasr City, Cairo
Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development
Basic Sciences pillar for the transition to the era of knowledge
العلوم الأساسية ركيزة ضرورية للتحول إلى عصر المعرفة

The 9 th International Conference for Basic Sciences,
   
Environment, Development, and Nanotechnology, 27 – 29 March 2017, Cairo, Egypt.

Plenary (POL) Speaker

 

 
 
Prof. Mohamed El-Bahay Issawi
member of many national and international associations
 
 

Abstract

 

Cenozoic rivers of northeast Africa: Evidence of trans-Saharan drainage

ABSTRACT: Radar imagery of the Sahara of Egypt and eastern Libya has dramatically changed previous concepts in regard to long term aridity of this region, revealing an extensive network of buried fluvial channels documenting the river systems that developed in the proto-Sahara during the Late Paleogene and Neogene, following the early Eocene regression of the Mediterranean Sea, and prior to Pleistocene aridification. The fall in base level associated with the end-Miocene Messinian desiccation of the Mediterranean led to deep down-cutting and extension of river systems throughout much of North Africa and South Europe. The deep, infilled canyons beneath the modern Rhone and Nile are well known, but the radar imagery identifies other deep canyons under the North African Sahara that are now invisible. In eastern Libya, drainage from Serir Tebisti (Tebisti Massif) into the Mediterranean via the Sirt Basin was channeled by two main rivers, the Sahabi in the west and the Kufra in the east; these were subsequently united in the Early Pliocene when the latter captured the former. The Gilf River was another important channel that drained north from the Uweinat Gilf highland in southwest Egypt, in a system that may have been connected with the Kufra during the Neogene and enabling fish to move from the presently isolated Chad Basin to northern Libya and Egypt. The interplay of these north-flowing rivers and the constant northward retreat of the Mediterranean shoreline from Oligocene onward resulted in deposits of fluvial and marine sedimentation in every possible combinaton that have been described by many authors in the region between the Tebisti and the present Mediterranean shoreline. Prior to the establishment of the Nile, a southwestward drainage, the Qena River, was initiated by Oligocene uplift and lateral faulting along the Red Sea shoulder of the East African Rift. This river discharged into a distributive network known as the Radar Rivers near latitude 23°30\ N in the Southwestern Desert. It has been suggested that waters from the Qena River continued to flow southwestward to the Atlantic Ocean, in what is known as Trans African Drainage System (TADS).

Wadi Gabgaba is a dry river now, once running into NE Sudan for 250 km. and continued in SE Egypt for another 150 km. before of joining Wadi Allaqi. The old Allaqi River continued WNW to reach the Old Qena R. at Kalbsha 80 km. South Aswan. The old Gabgaba R. could have easily usurpt the function of the R. Nile, but the outbrost of the Bayuda volcanic in the Late Neogene forced the Nile to pass south and north away from the volcanics building the Dongola loop with 5 cataracts. The Gabgaba when it was active built 30000 square km inland delta in NE Sudan and 12000 square km. land delta SE Egypt. The Gabgaba can easily rejuvenated and when the Atbara water reaches the now dead defunct river.

 

 

 

Biographical Sketch

Professor Mohamed El-Bahay Issawi was born in August 23rd. 1934 in Tanta (the capital of Gharbia Governorate in the Nile Delta). He married in October 1964 and the family grewby adding two sons in 1966 and in 1968. He graduated in 1955 from Cairo University with a BSc in Geology. He earned his MSc. and PhD. in Geology from the same university in 1964 and 1968, respectively. After graduation, he joined the Geological Survey of Egypt as a field geologist where he was involved in several mapping projects and was active in sedimentary, stratigraphy, Quaternary and structural geology. He discovered with his team the Abu Tartur phosphate deposits, west of Kharga Oasis in 1961, the new iron ore deposits in Bahariya Oasis area in 1963 and the Kalabsha kaolin deposits, southwest of Aswan, in 1968. Prof. Issawi extended his work to Libya where he headed a mapping project there between 1974 and 1977. From 1969 to 1971 Prof. Issawi was a research fellow in Oslo, Norway and from 1971 to 1972 was a visiting professor specializing in Middle East geology at South Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. He also served as adjunct professor in several Egyptian universities (e.g. Ain Shams, Menoufia, Aswan and Benha). Subsequently, Prof. Issawi became
the head of the Regional Geology Department and afterwards the Director General of the Geological Survey of Egypt between 1982 and 1984. He was Under Secretary of State for Mineral Wealth between 1985 and 1996. Prof. Issawi has served his science and his nation over his long and outstanding career. He was a Member of Board of Trustees of the Geological Survey of Egypt, Nuclear Material Corporation and the Supreme Council of Antiquities. He was also a member of the Permanent Committee of Pharaonic and Prehistoric Antiquities where he was consulted for many salvage projects in antiquities (e.g. Abu Simbel temples before being removed and after their reinstallation; Nefertari tomb with the Paul Getty Foundation; the rising water in Abydos temple, protection of the Sphinx against underground water and choosing suitable rocks to cover the body of the statue). He has also been a consultant with the Commission Des Communauties Europeennees between 1990 and 1995, and with the Egyptian Military Forces between 1990 and 1997. Prof. Issawi has been a member of many national and international associations (e.g. Geological Society of Egypt since 1955; Vice President of Geological Society of Africa, 1978e1986; and International Union of Geological Sciences, 1985-1989). Prof. Issawi has been the chief editor of the Annals of the Geological Survey of Egypt, 1978-1983; a member of the editorial board of SIENT e Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 1979-1982; the Journal of African Earth Sciences, Pergamon Press, Paris, France, 1981e1983; EPISODES, I.U.G.S. Jour., Ottawa, Canada, 1985-1989; SAHARA, and Milan, Italy, 1989-2007.

 

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